Historically, academic performance, prestige and standing vis-à-vis other institutions have always been amongst the foremost concerns of leading universities and other institutions of higher education. In recent years, a growing acceptance from inside and outside of academia that cutting-edge technologies and innovations originate from and require exceptional centers of research and learning has precipitated the worldwide phenomenon known as the “world-class university”. Consequently, more and more universities include the achievement of “word-class” status in their mission and make it an element of their long-term strategic plan. At the same time, a number of national governments are taking specific measures to promote and support the creation of world-class higher education institutions.
Toward a Word Class University, world university rankings for national and institutional research strategy of small developed nations was implied (Tony Sheil, Senior Manager, Research Strategy, Griffith University, Australia). It was showed on some indications. Firstly, “More of our universities should aim to be within the top 100 internationally and I would like some of our universities to aspire to the top 10.” (The Honourable Julie Bishop, MP, Australian Minister for Education, Science, & Training, August 30, 2007). Then “Small economies such as Singapore, Australia and Switzerland can’t compete with giant economies. In the global economy, small means you have to be focused and nimble, find a niche and work with partners.” (Professor Shih Choon Fong (2007), President, National University of Singapore)
The Problem is as a group, universities from small nations are amongst the best performers on the SJTU index represented evenly in all clusters, yet only three of these universities are represented in the top 50:
In Nature The Scientific Wealth and Impact of Small Nations on WCU was on the measures of relative performance, such as papers per person or citations per person, smaller nations outrank the G7 nations apart from US and UK.(Robert May, (1997), Science). Also on the return for research spending demonstrated by King in 2004 by comparing scientific wealth to economic wealth. This highlighted the role that small nations play in the global knowledge economy – and the barriers faced.(David King, (2004), Nature)
Thus Small Nations was likely face on the Competitive Disadvantage such as Institutions from small nations perform strongly on output measures such as:Science Citation index, SSCI, AHCI and Nature/science articles. There was only 12 universities from small nations make the SJTU top 100 for the HiCi indicator. Small nations struggle to attract elite academic talent. Strategies and policies aimed at maximizing number of high quality outputs will probably yield better results.
Some posibles program that was able to applied in the small nations was suggested to to concentrate research in identified areas of excellence, maximise their collaboration with major players, and enhance their capacity for innovation which often provides first mover advantage. And also in addition there are six rules which small nations ought consider carefully when framing research policy in response to rankings and globalisation.
- Rule 1: Return on research investment is achieved in a greater proportion of universities in small nations than in large nations – the highly concentrated approach to research funding favoured by large nations is not necessary.
- Rule 2: World-class university systems can be developed in small nations by taking either a ‘balanced’ or ‘focused’ approach.
- Rule 3: Developing an elite comprehensive research university is beyond reach.
- Rule 4: Small nations should aim to enhance partnerships with global research powerhouses.
- Rule 5: Small nations are at a major disadvantage in the competition for elite academic talent.
- Rule 6: Outsource basic research from research institutes to universities.
CRITERIA OF THE SELECTION OF INNOVATION UNIVERSITIES
The innovation Universities should guarantee the creation of the stable development of the research, reproduction of knowledge which is competitive on the world market
Creation of the effective innovation system which will connect education, research and business and implement it in the global innovation system
It is the first step to the world-class Universities
- The general measure of University activity such as number and results of international, and regional projects implemented by University, number of scientific publications, total and mentioned by number of teaching staff, number of patents inventions and know-how, total and mentioned by number of teaching stuff, number of exhibits demonstrated at the exhibitions (including international ones), total and mentioned by number of teaching stuff, number of local and International awards, prizes in the field of science, culture and education, total and mentioned by number of teaching stuff.
- Develop the Management of the University such as by availability of strategy development program of the University and average-term plan of actions , availability of public control authorities (for example, supervisory council), with significant level of representation of public and professional Communities, annual publication of reports on results of the activity, including those about structure of incomes and expenditures of budgetary and out-of-budgetary funds of the University; availability of system of educational process quality control (for example, ISO9000); availability of information systems of educational process control.
- Educational programs acceleration such as number of students (including bachelors, specialists, masters, post-graduate students, competitors, person working for doctor’s science degree);share of students studying under two-level programs of higher education, share of graduates who studied under Master, PhD, doctor Science and MBA programs in an aggregate number of graduates; average score of the Uniform State Examination (USE) among students enrolled to the first year of study under contractual and state-funded basis;hare of teaching stuff and researchers younger than 40 years old; share of students and post-graduate students involved in realization of educational process;number of personal computers which are used in educational process;availability of a local information network;number of personal computers comparing to the number of students which have access to the Internet;availability of public domain site of the University;availability of access for students and employees of the University to electronic educational resources (electronic libraries, statistical information basis etc.);number of foreign periodicals, received by library of the University;relation of number of places for residing in hostels to the total number of students;share of educational programs which have passed public and professional accreditation including international;share of the graduates who graduated from the University within the framework of target training programs (for example, supported by industry and business).
- Research, development and innovation activity such as scope of research and development and design-analytical works, of mentioned by number of teaching and research stuff;scope of out-of-budget research and development and design-analytical works, mentioned by number of teaching and research stuff;number of teaching stuff and researchers with academic degrees in the field of professional programs;number of teaching stuff and researchers participating in work of scientific and implementation enterprises, joint design bureau, business incubators, technical parks, patent agencies, centers of technological advantages.
- International activities such as share of citizens of the foreign states comparing to total number of students, including students from non-CIS countries; share of educational programs which have received an international accreditation; membership in the international educational organizations;number of international projects in the sphere of education and scientific research, common and mentioned by number research and teaching stuff;number of students, teachers and researchers who participated in the international exchange programs;number of international conferences, symposiums, scientific seminars at the University; share of invited foreign professors and teachers;share of graduates studying under the programs with participation of foreign partners comparing to total number of the University graduates.